The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives...

…does not stop when the visual effects subside. In order to make fireworks displays more interesting, chemicals are added to the propellant / powder mix. Igniting these mixtures produce varius incandescent and luminous effects during combustion. Byproducts from the chemical reactions that take place are areosols and a cocktail of more or less toxic gases. Typical compounds that are found in the aerosols are: Aluminium oxide, ammonium carbonate, Antimony(III) oxide, barium carbonate, barium sulphate, Bismuth(III) oxide, carbon, Copper(II) oxide, Iron(III) oxide, Magnesium oxide, potassium chloride, Potassium oxide, Potassium carbonate, Potassium nitrate, Potassium sulfate, Potassium sulfide, Potassium sulfite, Potassium thiocyanate, Strontium carbonate, Strontium sulfate, Sulphur, Titanium(II) oxide [1] - in order to name a few. »

Let's start a conversation

A feature we had to sacrifice on the “getting done in time” altar was the downstream messaging (ie sending messages to the devices, not just receiving). We had a clear idea on how we should do it, but our main focus was to get the essentials up and running so we had to postpone it a bit. As with any LPWAN technology the first thing you’ll try is to get bytes through the system, then something slightly more useful like monitoring data but after a while you realise that you’ll need downstream messaging to really make it a useful technology. »

Arduino library for NB-IoT breakout

One of our latest projects is a breakout board for the uBlox SARA N2 module. The breakout itself isn’t very exciting – you’ve got a voltage regulator, uFl connector for the antenna, a sim chip, a reset button and the module itself. If you are anything like us you probaly want to pull out your little teal friend, aka “the Arduino” and test it out quickly before deciding to do anything further, preferrably without having to fiddle too much with AT command parsing. »

How to open an IoT lab... with IoT!

Not very long ago someone asked us to come up with something for the ribbon cutting ceremony for the opening of the IoT Protolab here in Trondheim with “IoT” being the operative word. They already had some suggestions that included a samurai sword and a robot but that doesn’t mix well with a room full of people. Strange that. The IoT Protolab is a joint venture between Wireless Trondheim, Telenor and NTNU. »

Congress is open source!

Starting today the source code for Congress is available on GitHub under an Apache 2.0 license! The console (the one you can see at is also open sourced: The Congress server is written in Go and the console is written in TypeScript. It implements the majority of the LoRaWAN 1.1 spec but currently have no frequency management (it is on our todo list like so many other things). We’ve managed to push about 180 000 messages/minute through it so it performs reasonably well. »